Sometimes, some operators think it is very comfortable to choose a proprietary solution from only one provider: it seems to transfer the responsibility of any dysfunction in the system to the provider. It seems …

But who is really facing the problem, and considered as the responsible by its customers? And what is the cost of this supposedly transfer of responsibility?

It is surely very expensive, because, if the choice of a proprietary solution is not a problem of cost at the origin when the regulation is generally ensured by a tendering process, for all necessary future evolution, competition is impossible, and the price decided only by the manufacturer. And such a situation remains true for the entire life of the system, about 15 years or even more.

For the operators who funded Calypso, and who faced such problems in the past, it was time to do something different: in order to have a true competition at each evolution of the system, it requires that a large panel of manufacturers share the same technology, and are able to provide each element of the system.

It is what Calypso offers to the operators or authorities that intend to implement a ticketing system.


The best way to answer to the requirement of a non-proprietary solution is to develop it independently from all other manufacturers. That is what Calypso pioneers decided by making a partnership with a company involved in study and licensing, and not in manufacturing of products, Innovatron, and its study office, Roland Moreno Technology (RMT).

  • For a manufacturer, the best way to increase its income is to propertize its solution in order to return its R&D investment.
  • For Innovatron, the only way to increase its income is to sell as many licenses as possible in order to return its R&D investment.
  • For a buyer, consequently, the second solution means a large panel of vendors and true competition; the first solution means a single vendor and a total dependency to him.

The license policy of Calypso, on which its openness relies, is described in the “Patent” tab. Its results are that more than 40 different manufacturers are providing Calypso products.

The best evidence of the openness of Calypso may be seen in its software version, the Applet (or Cardlet) dedicated to be integrated on whatever Java Card platform (SIM for mobile phones, EMV card, etc.). This applet software is provided by CNA, free of charge, and can be used with whatever platform provided by manufacturers, provided that this platform strictly respects the relevant standards (particularly ISO 7816-4). By using the Calypso applet, the operator has totally a free choice of its provider.

In the page Providers, the openness of Calypso is demonstrated in each category of manufacturers providing a part of a ticketing system: IC manufacturers, card embedders, fare collection providers, etc.

And from2011, for terminal manufacturers, there is no more Calypso license, because only the SAM (Secure Application Module) is subject to license: all terminal manufacturers are able to provide Calypso terminals.